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jit

The Impact of Openness on the Market Potential of Multi-sided Platforms: A Case Study of Mobile Payment Platforms

Journal article
Jan Ondrus, Avinash Gannamaneni & Kalle Lyytinen
Journal of Information Technology, Volume 30, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 260-275

Abstract

A multi-sided platform can only succeed if a critical mass of users can join. This is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a platform’s success. However, there is a limited understanding of the factors that contribute to reaching such critical mass. In this study we identify ways to determine the market potential of a platform and to reach critical mass. We particularly enrich past studies by exploring how the openness of a platform influences market potential. We examine openness at three levels – provider, technology, and user level – and ask the question: to what extent can opening (or closing) each level increase or decrease a platform’s market potential? The provider level recognizes the strategic involvement of key stakeholders that provide a platform. The technology level is concerned with the interoperability of a platform across different technologies. The user level relates to what extent a platform discriminates different segments of the customer base. On the basis of analytical modeling and theoretical analysis, we formulate four propositions concerning the effects of openness on platforms’ market potential. We illustrate the strength of propositions through a confirmatory case study, which is informed by five theoretically sampled cases. The cases illustrate cogently the effects of opening different levels of a multi-sided platform. In conclusion, we propose a decision model that can assist decision making concerning the opening of a platform to catalyze its growth.

icec

Clashing over the NFC Secure Element for Platform Leadership in the Mobile Payment Ecosystem

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Electronic Commerce (ICEC), Seoul, South Korea, 3-5 August, 2015.

Abstract

This paper explores how the control over the Near Field Communication (NFC) secure element could provide platform leadership in the mobile payment ecosystem. During a decade of trials, firms from different industries struggled to launch proximity mobile payment platforms to pay at physical point-of-sales. Mobile payments platforms are complex socio-technical systems that need to combine an array of resources and capabilities from different firms. The implementation of NFC platforms requires to store financial credentials of consumers in a secure element (SE). The industry designed several competing platform architectures for the secure element: SIM-centric, device-centric, SD-centric, and Host Card Emulation (HCE). Each of these alternatives gave more or less control to the different firms involved in the mobile payment ecosystem. For years, firms promoted the architecture which would give them more control. Over the time, this struggle just hindered the emergence of successful mobile payment platforms. The recent emergence of new actors (e.g., Google, Apple, Samsung) raised optimistic prospects for future developments. This paper provides a strategic analysis of the mobile payment ecosystem by studying the relationship between SE architectures and the establishment of platform leadership by incumbents and emerging actors.

HICSS48logo

A Post-Failure Analysis of Mobile Payment Platforms

Conference paper
Avinash Gannamaneni, Jan Ondrus, Kalle Lyytinen
Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 5-8 January, 2015.

[Nominated for Best Paper Award]

Abstract

Despite on-going efforts over the past decade, mobile payments are yet to take off successfully. Repeated failures show that mobile payment platforms are complex to launch. The objective of this paper is to unveil factors explaining the failure of past mobile payment platforms. The use of a multi-level framework aims at enriching the variety of issues investigated. In order to explore the reasons of failure, we selected four cases from different countries happening at different times. Our results show that these cases share many of the same failure factors: lack of collaboration between the stakeholders, no technology standard, and low value-added for consumers and merchants compared to existing payment solutions. Even though the list is not exhaustive, the uncovered factors in our study seem to be necessary (but not sufficient) for the further developments of mobile payment platforms.

GDN

A Foresight Support System Using MCDM Methods

Journal article
Jan Ondrus, Tung Bui, Yves Pigneur
Group Decision and Negotiation, Volume 24, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages 333-358

Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate the design and use of a foresight support system (FSS) combining two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods. Traditionally, foresight activities involves Delphi, focus group, or Estimate–Talk–Estimate techniques to collect opinions of an expert panel. Often, these techniques are not computerized and data visualization is rudimentary. Our highly-interactive FSS solves a number of inherent issues during the data collection, analysis, and results visualization processes. Despite that MCDM methods have been recommended for technology foresight, a validation with a real field experiment was still required. To evaluate our approach and FSS, we conducted a foresight exercise for the Swiss mobile payments market. Our research confirms that the use of MCDM methods supported with a computerized tool can enhance the foresight processes and results.

Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

A Critical Review of Mobile Payment Research

Journal article
Tomi Dahlberg, Jie Guo, Jan Ondrus
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 14, Issue 5, September-October 2015, Pages 265-284

Abstract

This article aims at assessing the progress of mobile payment research over the last 8 years. A previous literature review (Dahlberg et al. 2008b), covering articles published between 1999 and 2006, showed that the majority of research had only focused on a few topics. In order to address this issue, a research agenda was formulated to encourage researchers to explore new topics. Almost a decade later, our review reveals that researchers have continued to focus on the same topics (especially consumer adoption and technology aspects) with a limited accumulation of new knowledge and similar findings. In addition to reviewing the literature, we discuss the possible reasons for the lack of research diversity and propose new recommendations to enhance future mobile payment research.

IJAIM

Mobile Social Networking Application Viability: A Research Framework

Journal article
Chee Wei Phang, Juliana Sutanto, Chuan Hoo Tan, Jan Ondrus
International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, Volume 22, Issue 4, 2014, Pages 321 – 338

Award: Highly Commended paper in the 2015 Emerald Literati Network Awards for Excellence

– The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework on mobile applications that support social interactions among users to warrant commercial viability of such applications.

– We build on the social network paradigm to propose an activity-based view on mobile application usage, and theoretically link the pertinent features of mobile social networking applications (MSNAs) to a set of measurement metrics concerning their commercial viability.

Findings

– The conceptual framework formulated highlights how MSNAs can be systematically designed and deployed to ensure their commercial viability.

– A pertinent set of features that support social networking among the users, and their plausible mechanisms in facilitating the commercial viability of MSNAs, are explicated. This facilitates future research endeavours in systematically investigating the emerging form of mobile applications. The limitation lies in a lack of empirical data to validate the formulated propositions, which is beyond the scope of this paper and is directed for future research.

– A coherent set of measurement metrics are put forward for practitioners to measure the commercial viability of an MSNA. Also theoretically based insights are derived for how they can better derive commercial values from the emerging form of mobile applications.

– Most relevant previous research has focused either on the MSNAs’ technical design aspects or user behavioural issues. This research ties up the themes on technical design, user behaviour and business consideration in formulating a research framework for assessing the commercial viability of MSNAs.

 

sigbps

Towards a Multi-level Framework to Analyze Mobile Payment Platforms

Conference paper
Avinash Gannamaneni, Jan Ondrus
SIGBPS Workshop on Business Processes and Services (BPS’13), Milan, Italy, 15 December, 2013.

Abstract

Despite highly optimistic expectations over the past decade, mobile payments are yet to take off successfully. Repeated failures show that mobile payment platforms are complex to launch. We propose a multi-level framework for analyzing the success and failure factors mobile payment platforms. We use a longitudinal case of mobile payments in South Korea to illustrate the framework. Our results show that three consecutive failures could be explained by essential conditions that were not fulfilled at different levels of the framework. The current attempt displays better potential at each level. Ultimately, the outcome of this fourth attempt is likely to be more positive than for the other previous ones.

icwl2013

SpeakUp - A Mobile App Facilitating Audience Interaction

Conference paper
Adrian Holzer, Sten Govaerts, Jan Ondrus, Andrii Vozniuk, David Rigaud, Benoît Garbinato, Denis Gillet
Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2013 - 12th International Conference, Kenting, Taiwan, 6-9 October, 2013

Abstract

A dynamic student-teacher interaction during class is an important part of the learning experience. However, in regular class settings and especially in large classrooms, it is a challenging task to encourage students to participate as they tend to be intimidated by the size of the audience. In this paper, in order to overcome this issue, we present SpeakUp, a novel context-aware mobile application supporting the social interactions between speakers and audiences through anonymous messaging and a peer rating mechanism. Context-awarness is achieved by bounding interactions in space and time using location-based authorization and message boards with limited lifetime. Anonymity is used as an icebreaker, so students dare writing down any question that pops in their heads. Peer rating is used to make it easy for teachers to access the most relevant ones and address them. We performed an evaluation with 140 students over five four-hour lessons that indicate that SpeakUp is easy to use and is perceived as useful.

iam

Mobile Merchandising: Exploring new business practices in the mobile payment ecosystem

Conference paper
Aakanksha Gaur, David Avison, Jan Ondrus
3rd Biennial Conference of the Indian Academy of Management (IAM), Ahmedabad, India, 12-14 December, 2013.

Abstract

Only a few mobile payments trials have been successful, many only partially. Failure may be explained by the lack of merchant involvement during the early stages of design. Previous researchers have suggested that high costs, lack of ease of use and interoperability issues might explain the lack of adoption by merchants. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual usage of mobile payments by merchants. This pilot study addresses the gap by adopting a practice-based lens to explore new and alternative business practices that emerge for merchants with the usage of mobile payments. Based on Indian cases, we reflect on the different business practices that emerge due to the symbolic attributes of technology and interaction with consumers.

icec

The Role of Banks in the Mobile Payment Ecosystem: A Strategic Asset Perspective

Conference paper
Aakanksha Gaur, Jan Ondrus
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Singapore, 7-8 August, 2012

Abstract

Markets in developed countries have witnessed the launch of a number of mobile payment initiatives over the last years. Even though the emergence of mobile payments may still hold high promises, most of these initiatives have seen stagnation or failure. Traditionally, dominant firms from various industries had to negotiate the exchange of their complementary resources and capabilities in order to provide a mobile payment platform. Indeed, significant efforts have been made to design a satisfying business model to enhance this essential collaboration. However, the struggle for these inter-dependent firms to form coalitions just hindered the emergence of successful mobile payment platforms. As firms have difficulties to self-orchestrate their efforts to shape sustainable ecosystems, different industry architectures solving the inter-dependency issue remain to be investigated. In certain architectures, the importance of the banks’ role has been questioned. This paper takes a resource-based view on banks to explore how resources/capabilities bestow upon banks a competitive advantage in the mobile payment ecosystem. The analysis leads to the identification of strategic assets, owing to which it can be argued that the banks still have an essential role to play in the industry architecture.

icis2012

Mobile App Development: Native or Web?

Conference paper
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on e-Business (WeB2012), Orlando, USA, 15 December 2012.

Abstract

The mobile application market has generated significant interest in the business community. One major issue when developing mobile applications is the fragmentation of the mobile device market. This fragmentation and the fierce competition between the different mobile platforms (e.g., iOS, Android, Windows, Blackberry) preclude mobile application portability between operating systems. Therefore, companies have to evaluate what development strategies are suitable for them: i) mobile native apps, ii) web apps, or iii) hybrid apps. In order to address this issue, this short research in progress paper presents the first steps towards the design of a decision support system (DSS) to evaluate these different mobile application development strategies. Using a design science approach, this research effort establishes a list of relevant criteria to differentiate the current strategies. As each strategy has benefits and drawbacks, we provide a preliminary step towards the creation of a prescriptive model to enable better decision-making while making trade-offs possible.

Logo_AIM2011

Towards a Better Understanding of Personal Productivity in the Context of Information Technology Use

Conference paper
Christophe Elie-Dit-Cosaque, Jan Ondrus
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the Association Information and Management (AIM), Ile de la Réunion, France, May 25-27, 2011

Abstract

IS research has spent considerable efforts to elaborate metrics for measuring the success of Information Systems (IS) implementations. System usage (Davis et al. 1989), technology infusion (Zmud and Apple 1992), trying to innovate with information technology (Ahuja and Thatcher 2005) or user satisfaction (Doll and Torkzadeh 1988) are among those measures that now allow IS researchers and practitioners to better understand the benefits of the Information Technology (IT) that are being implemented. As individuals use multiple IT in the workplace or even at home, a key understudied issue is that of user personal productivity during the interaction this myriad of IT. This is an even more salient issue nowadays as business productivity is one of the main concerns of Chief Information Officers (Luftman and Ben-Zvi 2010). Our research objective is twofold. We aim at 1) exploring the issues faced by individual IT users who interact with multiple integrated and non-integrated IT, and 2) identifying the facets and propose productivity framework in order to better understand this concept.

PACIS logo

The Role of Individual, Family-Related, and Organizational Factors in Shaping WLC in Offshoring Contexts: A Study of European and Indian IT Professionals

Conference paper
Saonee Sarker, Suprateek Sarker, Jan Ondrus, Debasish Jana, Manju Ahuja
Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Brisbane, Australia, 7-11 July, 2011.

Abstract

Today, we operate in a networked world, where organizations frequently resort to offshoring, such that work gets accomplished by a globally distributed workforce, whether inside or outside the organizational boundaries. Much of the past research on offshoring has focused on economic rationale and benefits as well as risks associated with offshoring. Offshoring leverages human capital in different parts of the globe, and the issues of WLC (WLC) faced by offshoring workforce issues can have substantial impact on the effectiveness of the offshoring arrangements. In spite of this, WLC in the context of offshoring has not received the attention it deserves. In this paper, based on responses from global software development (GSD) professionals based in Europe and India, we examine the key individual-based, family-based, and organization-based factors that can potentially have an impact on IT workers’ WLC. Further, we investigate the impact on WLC on outcome variables such as the workers’ job satisfaction as well as valence regarding working in offshoring environments in the future. Some interesting differences in factors relevant to workers in Europe and India emerge from our analysis.

icmb2011

Mobile Payments Market: Towards Another Clash of the Titans?

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Kalle Lyytinen
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB), Como, Italy, June 20-21. 2011

Abstract

In this paper we assess developments in the mobile payments in light of new technologies (e.g., NFC) and solution frameworks (e.g., Android). With the recent announcements of Google and other players to enter the mobile payment markets the already dynamic arena of mobile payments is getting more complex and competitive. Everyone is jockeying to new positions by announcing novel payment solutions based e.g. on NFC systems. We argue, however, that significant and recurrent social, institutional, and business challenges remain to be solved for successful mobile payment platforms to emerge. In order to get these multi-sided platforms to diffuse multiple stakeholders have to be simultaneously convinced for related value propositions and more workable economic arrangements need to be forged.

LNBIP2011

Mobile Application Market: A Mobile Network Operators’€™ Perspective

Book chapter
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
In R. Sharman, H. R. Rao, T. S. Raghu, W. Aalst, J. Mylopoulos, N. M. Sadeh, M. J. Shaw, et al. (Eds.), Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business (Vol. 52, pp. 186-191). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Abstract

The mobile telecommunication market has recently been shaken by the arrival of new actors, such as Apple and Google. As a consequence, the relatively well-established mobile network operators (MNO) have to rethink their position in the market if they want to participate in the growth of mobile telecommunication revenues. Mobile applications and services are being seen as great opportunity of new revenue sources. However, with the current market structure, MNOs do not hold a privileged position compared to mobile platforms providers such as Apple with iTunes. In this paper, we assess whether or not there is still space in the mobile application market for MNOs. In order to do so, we examine different roles in the mobile application value chain and determine how MNOs can position themselves in this turbulent new market. Our analysis shows that MNOs will have to focus on their core business as network provider and establish alliances with platform providers.

tani

Mobile Application Market: A Developer’s Perspective

Journal article
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
Telematics & Informatics, Volume 28, Issue 1, 2011, Pages 22-31

Abstract

Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes in the market by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application developments. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers but also bring additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantage of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the identified trends will impact the mobile application development markets. Our preliminary analysis leads us to suggest eight propositions which summarize our findings and can be the starting points for future empirical research.

IJeC

Mapping the Need for Mobile Collaboration Technologies: A Fit Perspective

Journal article
Saonee Sarker, Damon Campbell, Jan Ondrus, Joe Valacich
International Journal of E-Collaboration, Volume 6, Issue 4, 2010, Pages 32-53, 2010.

Abstract

With the growing popularity of mobile technologies and the increasing use of groups within organizations, it is important to understand the collaboration contexts where mobile collaboration technologies (MCTs) are essential. This is especially critical given the high cost associated with the acquisition and implementation of MCTs and the need to make an informed decision regarding the appropriateness of MCTs. In this paper, the authors address this issue by first drawing on real life-based collaboration scenarios and examining the technology requirements of groups; second, comparing the features offered by MCTs with those of FTF and two types of CMCTs; third, proposing a collaboration environment-technology fit perspective in realizing optimal usage of a collaboration technology; and fourth, creating the Group Collaboration Technology Repertoire Grid, which maps the “ideal” collaboration technology(s) repertoire for each type of collaboration environment. The grid highlights the collaboration environments that would need MCTs and provides managers or organizational group leaders the ability to map their collaboration environments into a specific category and thus more easily decide on the particular collaboration technology repertoire that would be most beneficial.

HICSS42

Why Mobile Payments Fail? Towards a Dynamic and Multi-perspective Explanation

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Kalle Lyytinen, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 42th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’09), IEEE Computer Society, 5-8 Jan 2009, Hawaii, USA.

Abstract

Despite optimistic expectations fast diffusion of mobile payments has not taken place after a decade of trials. Several explanations to this situation have been put forward using several theories and levels of analysis. Due to the complexity and dynamism of the diffusion we need multiple perspectives to account for diffusion challenge. We juxtapose three frameworks into a dynamic analysis framework. We apply the proposed framework to explain three failed introductions of mobile payments in the Swiss market. In particular, a recent ambitious trial is confronted with the proposed framework to detect roots of its failure. Our analysis suggests that market-level and behavioral facets need more attention in future in explaining mobile payment diffusion. To guide future efforts we propose several avenues for further research.

978-3-642-03569-2

Trends in Mobile Application Development

Book chapter
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
In C. Hesselman, C. Giannelli, O. Akan, P. Bellavista, J. Cao, F. Dressler, D. Ferrari, et al. (Eds.), Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications - Workshops (Vol. 12, pp. 55-64). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Abstract

Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

mobileware2009

Trends in Mobile Application Development

Conference paper
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
1st International Workshop on Business Models for New Mobile Platforms (BMMP'09). Springer. (published in book chapter)

Abstract

Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

icis2009

The Role of Mobile Network Operators in the Mobile Application Market

Conference paper
Adrian Holzer, Jan Ondrus
8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009 (published in book chapter)

Abstract

The mobile telecommunication market has recently been shaken by the arrival of new actors, such as Apple and Google. As a consequence, the relatively well-established mobile network operators (MNO) have to rethink their position in the market if they want to participate in the growth of mobile telecommunication revenues. Mobile applications and services are being seen as great opportunity of new revenue sources. However, with the current market structure, MNOs do not hold a privileged position compared to mobile platforms providers such as Apple with iTunes. In this paper, we assess whether or not there is still space in the mobile application market for MNOs. In order to do so, we examine different roles in the mobile application value chain and determine how MNOs can position themselves in this turbulent new market. Our analysis shows that MNOs will have to focus on their core business as network provider and establish alliances with platform providers.

iseb

Near Field Communication: An Assessment for Future Payment Systems

Journal article
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Information Systems and E-Business Management, Volume 7, Issue 3, 2009, Pages 347‑361

Abstract

In this paper, we present an assessment of near field communication (NFC) in the context of a payment market. During these past years, we have been witnessing a number of mobile payment trials based on NFC. Early experiences are already quite encouraging and many expect NFC to become a highly efficient and effective technology for mobile payments. The objective of our research is to evaluate in a systematic manner the potential of NFC as an upcoming technology for mobile payments. In order to ensure the rigor of our research, we used a formal and structured approach based on multi-actor multi-criteria methods. Our research provides one of the first assessment of NFC and a realistic picture of the current Swiss situation as we involved numerous mobile payment experts. Our findings show that Swiss industry experts are quite enthusiastic about the future of NFC.

desrist09

C-K design theory for information systems research

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST'09)

Abstract

Design science is slowly but surely establishing itself as a recognized paradigm for conducting research in information systems. Researchers in the IS field have tried to study different aspects of design science. So far, it seems that the design activity, or “design reasoning” has not received much attention from the IS community. In this paper, we propose to use a theory developed in engineering fields in order to solve this issue. The C-K theory, or Concept-Knowledge theory, is considered to be a good candidate to deal with the design reasoning.

Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

Past, Present and Future of Mobile Payments Research: A Literature Review

Journal article
Tomi Dahlberg, Niina Mallat, Jan Ondrus & Agnieska Zmijewska
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2008, Pages 165-181

Abstract

The mobile payment services markets are currently under transition with a history of numerous tried and failed solutions, and a future of promising but yet uncertain possibilities with potential new technology innovations. At this point of the development, we take a look at the current state of the mobile payment services market from a literature review perspective. We review prior literature on mobile payments, analyze the various factors that impact mobile payment services markets, and suggest directions for future research in this still emerging field. To facilitate the analysis of literature, we propose a framework of four contingency and five competitive force factors, and organize the mobile payment research under the proposed framework. Consumer perspective of mobile payments as well as technical security and trust are best covered by contemporary research. The impacts of social and cultural factors on mobile payments, as well as comparisons between mobile and traditional payment services are entirely uninvestigated issues. Most of the factors outlined by the framework have been addressed by exploratory and early phase studies.

AIM

Comparison of Multi-criteria and Prediction Market Approaches for Technology Foresight

Conference paper
Cédric Gaspoz, Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Association Information and Management (AIM), Paris, France, December 14, 2008

Abstract

This paper presents and compares two original approaches for technology assessment and foresight based on opposite paradigm: a management science approach (Multi-Criteria Decision-Making) versus a participatory approach (Prediction Market). These approaches are intended to support the management of a technology portfolio and the assessment of new technology by an IT organization. In order to explore the relevance of the research, we conducted several experiments in real environments. The results demonstrated that the rigor of management science and the participation of the Web 2.0 approach are complementary strengths for technology foresight. Furthermore, a framework has been established to compare the two approaches.

AIM

Technology Foresight for IT Investment: Multi-Criteria Decision-Making versus Prediction Markets

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Cedric Gaspoz, Yves Pigneur
6th pre-Icis AIM Workshop, 8 Dec 2007, Montreal, Canada.

Abstract

This paper presents and compares two original techniques for disruptive technology assessment and foresight based on opposite paradigm: a management science approach (Multi-Criteria Decision-Making) versus a Web 2.0 approach (Prediction Market). These approaches are intended to support the management of a technology portfolio and the assessment of new technology by an IT organization. In order to explore the relevance of the research, we conducted several experiments in real environments. The results demonstrated that the rigor of management science and the participation of the Web 2.0 approach are complementary strengths for technology foresight

Electronic Markets

Cross-industry Preferences for Development of Mobile Payments in Switzerland

Journal article
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Electronic Markets – The International Journal, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2007, Pages 142-152

Abstract

In this paper we present a study that unveils the technological and organizational preferences of various industries for mobile payment developments in Switzerland. Despite the expected success, mobile payments remain at an early stage of development in most countries. At this point, there is a real need for better understanding of the factors hindering the deployment of mobile payments. We conducted several series of interviews involving key Swiss experts to elicit the preferences of the different industries involved in the mobile payment market. The findings indicate that card‐based solutions are still preferred to mobile phone‐based solutions from an industry point of view. However, in terms of industrial settings, the situation is not as clear for determining the dominant actors who would lead mobile payments solutions in the future. At this stage, this study already reveals some weak market signals concerning the future developments of mobile payments in Switzerland.

icmb2007

An Assessment of NFC for Future Payments Systems

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB’07), IEEE Computer Society. 9-11 Jul 2007, Toronto, Canada

Abstract
In this paper, we present an assessment of NFC (near field communication) for future mobile payment systems. NFC is expected to become a very trendy technology for mobile services, more specifically for mobile payments. The objective of our paper is to evaluate in a systematic manner the potential of NFC as an upcoming technology for mobile payments. In order to ensure the rigor of our research, we used a formal and structured approach based on multi-actor multi-criteria methods. Our research provides one of the first assessment of NFC and a realistic picture of the current Swiss situation as we involved numerous mobile payment experts. Our findings show that Swiss industry experts are quite enthusiastic about the future of NFC.

Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

Towards A Holistic Analysis of Mobile Payments: A Multiple Perspectives Approach

Journal article
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 246-257, 2006.

ABSTRACT

As mobile technologies and services are in constant evolution, many speculate on whether or not mobile payments will be a killer application for mobile commerce. To have a better understanding of the market,there is a need to analyze not only the technology but also the different actors that are involved. For this purpose, we propose to conduct two disruption analyses to draw the disruptiveness profile of mobile payment solutions compared to other payment instruments. Then, we try to discover what factors have hindered the technical and commercial development by using a DSS based on a multi-criteria decision making method called Electre I.

logomrt2006

Mobile Payment Market and Research – Past, Present and Future

Conference paper
Tomi Dahlberg, Niina Mallat, Jan Ondrus, Agnieszka Zmijewska
Helsinki Mobility Roundtable 2006, 1-2 Jun 2006, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

The mobile payment market is currently under transition with a history of numerous tried and failed solutions and a future of promising but yet uncertain possibilities with contactless RFID and other new potential technologies. At this point of the development we take a look at the current state of the mobile payment market, review prior literature on mobile payment services, analyze the different factors that impact the market, and give directions for future research on this still emerging field. To facilitate the analysis, we propose a framework of four contingency and five competitive factors, and organize the contemporary mobile payment research under the proposed framework.

IEEELogo-gray

A Systematic Approach to Explain the Delayed Deployment of Mobile Payments in Switzerland

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB’06), IEEE Computer Society. 26-27 Jun 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract
Despite the predicted success of mobile payments, the market remains immature in most countries. This can be explained by a number of technical and business issues. Mobile technology environments are becoming more complex, uncertain, and disruptive. As such, the strategic assessment of technologies remains a challenging activity. In this paper we present a systematic approach to analyze the mobile payment industry. To decompose the problem we identified two potential disruptions which could occur in this market. As we cover both the technological and the organizational aspects, we provide a more complete picture of the status of mobile payments in Switzerland. Moreover, this approach intends to unveil the factors delaying the deployment of mobile payments in Switzerland.

HICSS-39

A Multi-stakeholder Multi-criteria Assessment Framework of Mobile Payments: An Illustration with the Swiss Public Transportation Industry

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’06), IEEE Computer Society, 4-7 Jan 2006, Hawaii, USA.

Abstract
As wireless technologies are becoming more mature for payment systems, the public transportation companies are facing great challenges in designing their next fare collection system. They have to decide whether they want to keep their legacy systems or innovate with the implementation of new mobile technologies for their upcoming payment instrument. Therefore, they need to consider various technical and business aspects during the design process. Moreover, in such an industry, a technological consensus between the stakeholders involved is desirable to eventually reach a global market. In this paper, we propose a multi-actor multi-criteria framework to facilitate the assessment of mobile payments for the Swiss public transportation industry. To compute our proposed model, we recently conducted a first set of structured interviews with Swiss key experts to collect data.

amcis2006

A GDSS for Visualizing and Assessing a Technology Environment

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Jean-Sébastien Monzani, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2006), 4-6 Aug 2006, Acapulco, México.

ABSTRACT
The basic premise of this paper is that a multi-actor multi-criteria decision-making approach, supported by a highly-visual tool, is a strong candidate for assisting technology assessment and forecast. The analysis should involve multiple actors from different industries and embed various perspectives in order to have a more complete picture of the technology environment. To support this activity, we designed a GDSS that facilitates interaction with experts during the elicitation of preferences.Moreover, emphasis was placed on enhancing visualization of the input data and outcomes, which could be highly appreciated when conducting a distributed and unsynchronized Delphi study. In this paper we illustrate the application of this tool in the context of the Swiss mobile payment industry.

26924-X LNAI 3554

Environmental Context Significance in Strategic Decision Support Systems

Conference paper
Giovanni Camponovo, Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
International Workshop on Context Modeling and Decision Support (Context’05), 5 July 2005, Paris, France.

Abstract

Appraising the environmental context in which an organization deploys its activity is a necessity in order to make appropriate decisions and adapting strategies to a context in constant evolution, especially in a time where this context is increasingly complex, uncertain and disruptive. Decision makers therefore need more than ever better tools that aid them to analyze their environment, providing them the most pertinent information to take the most appropriate decisions. In this paper, we attempt to propose a set of reusable artifacts that would facilitate the development of decision support systems for assessing the organization’s environment. In particular, we propose an ontology that defines the different elements that shall be taken into account in order to effectively and efficiently scan an environment. We then provide an overview of some analysis techniques and tools that could be useful to analyze, assess and visualize essential information about these elements. Finally, we present two decision support system prototypes that allow a partial analysis of the environment using appropriate interaction and visualization techniques.

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A Proposal for a Multi-Perspective Analysis of the Mobile Payments Environment

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Giovanni Camponovo, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB’05), IEEE Computer Society. 11-13 Jul 2005, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract
Mobile payment is a very promising service, which is still in an early stage of development. Various solutions have been proposed with disparate success. This can partially be explained by the immaturity of the market, by the inexistence of proven business models for the various actors, and by the presence of several unresolved technological and business issues. As these aspects are all relevant and interrelated, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of analyzing the mobile payment environment using multiple perspectives. We therefore present an original approach based on a technology environment assessment framework, which combines the appraisal of different perspectives: namely the market, the actors and the issues that characterize the environment.

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A Multi-Actor, Multi-Criteria Approach for Technology Selection When Designing Mobile Information Systems

Book chapter
Jan Ondrus, Tung Bui, Yves Pigneur
In J. Krogstie, K. Kautz, & D. Allen (Eds.), Mobile Information Systems II (Vol. 191, pp. 271-278). Springer Boston. 2005

Abstract

The fast ever-growing number of newly introduced mobile technologies makes the development of mobile information systems a somewhat complex activity. Decision makers – providers, merchants, and consumers alike – have to face great uncertainty and complexity regarding the acceptance of mobile technologies. Therefore, we stress that the selection process of an enabling technology for mobile commerce should be preceded with the use of a structured assessment methodology. With different available alternatives and various criteria for technology evaluation, multi-criteria decision making methods seem to be appropriate to support this selection process. Moreover, the success of introducing a new technology in a mobile information system depends on the preferences of varied involved actors in the market. We also consider in our approach the existence of multiple actors for the search of a technological consensus. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the mobile payment industry.

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A Disruption Analysis in the Mobile Payment Market

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’05), IEEE Computer Society, 3-6 Jan 2005, Hawaii, USA.

[Nominated for Best Paper Award]

Abstract
Mobile payments are predicted to have a bright future as m-commerce becomes more popular. However, this promising application has not been as successful as anticipated. This can be partially explained by the infancy of the market and a lack of standards. Moreover, technological and business issues create a market uncertainty that mobile network operators and financial institutions have difficulties managing. Thus, the evolution of the mobile payment market is subject to many speculative scenarios. This paper analyzes two possible disruptions of the mobile payment market.

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Coupling Mobile Payments and CRM in the Retail Industry

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Yves Pigneur
IADIS International E-Commerce 2004, 14-16 Dec 2004, Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract
The growing prevalence of electronic commerce and the widespread use of mobile devices have made mobile payments an interesting alternative method of payment for customers and merchants. One major issue to be resolved is the integration of a real-time wireless means of payment within their current payment system. In this paper, we propose an architecture of mobile payment system to improve business processes and increase customer loyalty. An all-in-one device that enables mobile payments and also integrates a membership scheme would simplify and significantly accelerate the payment process at the point of sale (POS). Moreover, the deployment of an effective customer relationship management (CRM) system and an adapted data mining tool would allow retailers to propose a dynamic-generated website to their customers. This would follow a one-to-one e-marketing strategy and would improve companies’ ability to suggest customized offers and coupons.

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A Multi-actor, Multi-criteria Approach for Technology Selection when Designing Mobile Information Systems

Conference paper
Jan Ondrus, Tung Bui, Yves Pigneur
IFIP TC8 Working Conference on Mobile Information Systems (MOBIS’05), 5-6 Dec 2005, Leeds, UK (published in book chapter)

Abstract
The fast ever-growing number of newly introduced mobile technologies makes the development of mobile information systems a somewhat complex activity. Decision makers – providers, merchants, and consumers alike – have to face great uncertainty and complexity regarding the acceptance of mobile technologies. Therefore, we stress that the selection process of an enabling technology for mobile commerce should be preceded with the use of a structured assessment methodology. With different available alternatives and various criteria for technology evaluation, multi-criteria decision making methods seem to be appropriate to support this selection process. Moreover, the success of introducing a new technology in a mobile information system depends on the preferences of varied involved actors in the market. We also consider in our approach the existence of multiple actors for the search of a technological consensus. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the mobile payment industry.

hicss36

M-Computing for Real-Time Negotiation Support

Conference paper
Tung Bui, Jan Ondrus
Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’03), IEEE Computer Society, 6-9 Jan 2003, Hawaii, USA.

Abstract
Mobile computing (or m-computing) technologies have recently made sufficient progress making it possible to seamlessly integrate communications and data processing in m-commerce applications. Using telemedicine as an illustration of m-commerce, we propose a system analysis and design method to formulate communications, knowledge management and transaction processing requirements for each of the business processes in a mobile application workflow. We also discuss various technological supports to implement these requirements. We advocate the use and design of process-oriented software agents to support a highly distributed and loosely-coupled federation of wireless and legacy information systems to support decision, bargaining and negotiation in a real-time environment.