Despite highly optimistic expectations over the past decade, mobile payments are yet to take off successfully. Repeated failures show that mobile payment platforms are complex to launch. We propose a multi-level framework for analyzing the success and failure factors mobile payment platforms. We use a longitudinal case of mobile payments in South Korea to illustrate the framework. Our results show that three consecutive failures could be explained by essential conditions that were not fulfilled at different levels of the framework. The current attempt displays better potential at each level. Ultimately, the outcome of this fourth attempt is likely to be more positive than for the other previous ones.